LIBER Quarterly: The Journal of the Association of European Research Libraries <div class="major-block"> <div class="featured-block"> <p>LIBER Quarterly is the peer reviewed, open access journal of <a href="">LIBER, the Association of European Research Libraries</a>. The journal seeks to cover all aspects of modern research librarianship and scientific information delivery. It strives to form a bridge between the scholars of the Library and Information Sciences (LIS) and the practitioners in our university and research libraries by publishing not only theoretical contributions, but also examples of good practices.</p> </div> </div> en-US (Trudy Turner) (Openjournals) Wed, 19 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 OJS 60 Sharing published short academic works in institutional repositories after six months <p>The ambition of the Netherlands, laid down in the National Plan Open Science, is to achieve 100% open access for academic publications. The ambition was to be achieved by 2020. However, it is to be expected that for the year 2020 between 70% and 75% of the articles will be open access. Until recently, the focus of the Netherlands has been on the gold route - open access via journals and publishers’ platforms. This is likely to be costly and it is also impossible to cover all articles and other publication types this way. Since 2015, Dutch Copyright Act has offered an alternative with the implementation of Article 25fa (also known as the ‘Taverne Amendment’), facilitating the green route, i.e. open access via (trusted) repositories. This amendment allows researchers to share short scientific works (e.g. articles and book chapters in edited collections), regardless of any restrictive guidelines from publishers. From February 2019 until August 2019 all Dutch universities participated in the pilot ‘You Share, we Take Care!’ to test how this copyright amendment could be interpreted and implemented by institutions as a policy instrument to enhance green open access and “self-archiving”. In 2020 steps were taken to scale up further implementation of the amendment. This article describes the outcomes of this pilot and shares best practices on implementation and awareness activities in the period following the pilot until early 2021, in which libraries have played an instrumental role in building trust and working on effective implementations on an institutional level. It concludes with some possible next steps for alignment, for example on a European level.</p> Jeroen Sondervan, Arjan Schalken, Jan de Boer, Saskia Woutersen-Windhouwer Copyright (c) 2021 Jeroen Sondervan, Arjan Schalken, Jan de Boer, Saskia Woutersen-Windhouwer Mon, 04 Oct 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Transparency, provenance and collections as data <div class="authors"> <p>‘Collections as data’ has become a core activity for libraries in recent years: it is important that we make collections available in machine-readable formats to enable and encourage computational research. However, while this is a necessary output, discussion around the processes and workflows required to turn collections into data, and to make collections data available openly, are just as valuable. With libraries increasingly becoming producers of their own collections – presenting data from digitisation and digital production tools as part of datasets, for example – and making collections available at scale through mass-digitisation programmes, the trustworthiness of our processes comes into question. In a world of big data, often of unclear origins, how can libraries be transparent about the ways in which collections are turned into data, how do we ensure that biases in our collections are recognised and not amplified, and how do we make these datasets available openly for reuse? This paper presents a case study of work underway at the National Library of Scotland to present collections as data in an open and transparent way – from establishing a new Digital Scholarship Service, to workflows and online presentation of datasets. It considers the changes to existing processes needed to produce the Data Foundry, the National Library of Scotland's open data delivery platform, and explores the practical challenges of presenting collections as data online in an open, transparent and coherent manner.</p> </div> Sarah Ames Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 19 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Open Journal Systems as a Pedagogical Tool to Teach and Learn Scholarly Publishing <div class="authors">Academic libraries play a pivotal role in promoting open science, providing essential services for opening research and education. The library has also a key role in increasing awareness of open educational resources and practices. Editori is an open journal service at the University of Helsinki designed with an educational focus, providing simultaneously a contribution to the rising trend of university-based and library-based publishing. We show how this service, based on Open Journal Systems (OJS), can be applied as a pedagogical tool for teaching scholarly publishing skills to university students. In 2019 Helsinki University Library initiated a pilot project together with the Working Seminar of Doctoral Programme in Philosophy, Arts and Society of the Arts Faculty of the University of Helsinki. We outline expected pedagogical outcomes from the project, relating to scholarly communication skills, report feedback from teachers and students and discuss implications for future service development. In sum, students and teachers found the Editori platform intuitive and easy to use, although the learning curve for course leaders was considered steep in the initial phase.</div> Kimmo Koskinen, Markku Roinila, Kati Syvälahti Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 18 May 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Dawning of a new age? Economics journals’ data policies on the test bench <p>In the field of social sciences and particularly in economics, studies have frequently reported a lack of reproducibility of published research. Most often, this is due to the unavailability of data reproducing the findings of a study. However, over the past years, debates on open science practices and reproducible research have become stronger and louder among research funders, learned societies, and research organisations. Many of these have started to implement data policies to overcome these shortcomings. Against this background, the article asks if there have been changes in the way economics journals handle data and other materials that are crucial to reproduce the findings of empirical articles. For this purpose, all journals listed in the Clarivate Analytics Journal Citation Reports edition for economics have been evaluated for policies on the disclosure of research data. The article describes the characteristics of these data policies and explicates their requirements. Moreover, it compares the current findings with the situation some years ago. The results show significant changes in the way journals handle data in the publication process. Research libraries can use the findings of this study for their advisory activities to best support researchers in submitting and providing data as required by journals.</p> Sven Vlaeminck Copyright (c) 2021 Sven Vlaeminck Thu, 26 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Opening up the Library <div class="authors">Momentum is building in the transition to open access for monographs, with a number of funders developing policies and mandates in recent years. The article argues that while libraries play an instrumental role in driving a transition to open science within their institutions this is not reflected in libraries’ approaches to collection development, which are still predicated on purchased content. Libraries are keen to demonstrate that their purchased content is relevant to users, often promoting ‘expensive’ purchased collections over open content. Rather than relegating open to a less-visible second place, the article calls for libraries to acquire and promote open content alongside, and where appropriate with higher priority, than paid-for content. In order to facilitate a transition to open access for monographs, cultural change and leadership is required within libraries to reimagine themselves around open content as the norm, with policies, practices and structures that communicate, enable and promote this shift. The article calls for a collaborative international approach.</div> Joanna Ball, Graham Stone, Sarah Thompson Copyright (c) 2021 Fri, 05 Feb 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Words Algorithm Collection - finding closely related open access books using text mining techniques <p>Open access platforms and retail websites are both trying to present the most relevant offerings to their patrons. Retail websites deploy recommender systems that collect data about their customers. These systems are successful but intrude on privacy. As an alternative, this paper presents an algorithm that uses text mining techniques to find the most important themes of an open access book or chapter. By locating other publications that share one or more of these themes, it is possible to recommend closely related books or chapters.</p> <p>The algorithm splits the full text in trigrams. It removes all trigrams containing words that are commonly used in everyday language and in (open access) book publishing. The most occurring remaining trigrams are distinctive to the publication and indicate the themes of the book. The next step is finding publications that share one or more of the trigrams. The strength of the connection can be measured by counting – and ranking – the number of shared trigrams. The algorithm was used to find connections between 10,997 titles: 67% in English, 29% in German and 6% in Dutch or a combination of languages. The algorithm is able to find connected books across languages.</p> <p>It is possible use the algorithm for several use cases, not just recommender systems. Creating benchmarks for publishers or creating a collection of connected titles for libraries are other possibilities. Apart from the OAPEN Library, the algorithm can be applied to other collections of open access books or even open access journal articles. Combining the results across multiple collections will enhance its effectiveness.</p> Ronald Snijder Copyright (c) 2021 Ronald Snijder Tue, 24 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 The Economic Foundation of Library Copyright Strategies in Europe <p>The author critically examines the evolution of open access libraries from the TULIP project (1991) to more recent developments. At the same time, he emphasises the role of libraries as key agents of national book policies through Public Lending Rights. After having shown the difference between the scholarly communication and the book chains, both in printed and digital form, the author points to the position that libraries hold on the distribution segment of the chains and how they are unable to turn power relations among actors to their own advantage.</p> <p>If content if king, organisations distributing content are normally king-makers, as the example of STM publishers clearly shows. Nevertheless, fragmentation and the assumption that what is good for libraries is also good for users do not allow libraries to understand the needs of the different stakeholders present in the value chain and provide appropriate services to them. This aspect is emphasised further in the book trade, where libraries have been hesitant in realising the economic foundation of copyright regulations which consists of trading off “the costs of limiting access to a work against the benefits of providing incentives to create the work in the first place” (Landes &amp; Posner).</p> <p>After having examined library copyright strategies both in the book trade and in scholarly communication with a thorough discussion on (e-)lending and controlled digital lending, the author claims that copyright regulations are not written in the sky but on a solid foundation of economic forces which shape the book and information chains. Libraries’ strategies should aim to reinforce their relevance in the distribution segment and demonstrate their ability to provide services to all actors in the value chain. This role should also impact on the normalisation of library-publisher relations.</p> Giuseppe Vitiello Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 01 Mar 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Digital Humanities in European Research Libraries <div class="authors"> <p>Libraries are increasingly becoming involved in digital humanities research beyond the offering of digital collections<em>.</em>&nbsp;This article examines how libraries in Europe deal with this shift in activities and how they compare with libraries in other parts of the world. This article builds on the results of surveys conducted in Australia, New Zealand, Hong Kong, the United States and the United Kingdom, and compares them with a survey conducted in Europe. We found that European libraries are mostly active in research supporting activities, such as digitisation and storage, while US libraries often include analysis in their activities. Funding comes from the library’s main budget and non-structural funding in a variety of forms. Staff working in DH roles has&nbsp;a diverse range of titles, with various forms of librarians&nbsp;being the most used. Analytical staff such as GIS specialists are only found in the US survey. All surveyed libraries agree that the biggest skill gap amongst their staff is in technical skills. When looking towards the future, European libraries see the role of digital humanities (or digital scholarship) within the library grow and are making plans to facilitate this change within their organisation by positioning themselves as an attractive research partner, by opening and increasing their digital collections and by improving the internal workings of the library.</p> </div> Lotte Wilms Copyright (c) 2021 Mon, 26 Apr 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Why the simple act of listening will help us design strong and sustainable post pandemic library services Lotti Dorthé, Elisabeth Bergenäs Copyright (c) 2021 Lotti Dorthé, Elisabeth Bergenäs Thu, 12 Aug 2021 00:00:00 +0200 Open science cannot succeed without open peer review <div class="content-node paragraph" data-id="paragraph_1"> <div class="content"> <div class="content-node text" data-id="text_1"> <div class="content">Open Science principles have been a critical driver for change in scholarly communication. Opening up research publications has led to encouraging rates of growth of Open Access but it has now become evident that true and system-wide change will only come if all the publishing components are open, including those at the production stages. We are seeing a growing demand to know more about how research papers qualify for publication and if we wish to engender more trust in scholarly outputs – trust within the scholarly communication community and trust of the wider public – we should listen carefully and seek to act on these demands. However, when an entire system has been fixed in its ways for many years, it is not easy to shake things up. In short, while it may be reasonable to ask for changes, not all of these will be welcomed or be embraced.<br /><br /><span style="font-size: 0.875rem;">Peer review is one of these publishing components. Regardless of the types and forms in each publication venue, it supposedly ensures that the intellectual work of an author has been checked, improved and qualified for publication after constructive dialogue among all participants; the author, the editor and the reviewers. We recognise it as an important process that validates the quality of a publication, which can be trusted by the reader and – as trusted – will be used in solving research problems and sometimes underpin changes in public policy. While the principles of peer review are still valid, in an Open Science system the current closed and entirely opaque operation of this system seems obsolete and even vicious. Masked by anonymisation and based on linearity this very regulated dialogue serves largely the prestige of publishing venues and individuals. Changes are needed, but we should acknowledge beforehand that changing peer review is a challenging exercise. The issues around peer review are complex, requiring alternative management of both the processes and the actors.</span></div> </div> </div> </div> Giannis Tsakonas Copyright (c) 2021 Giannis Tsakonas Wed, 03 Nov 2021 00:00:00 +0100 Editorial <div class="authors">LQ Editorial</div> Trudy Turner, Mel Collier Copyright (c) 2021 Tue, 12 Jan 2021 00:00:00 +0100