1VIRTA Publication Information Service, implemented in 2016, is a data hub that compiles bibliographic information of scientific publications from Finnish higher education institutions and research organisations using different local solutions for the publication data collection, such as Current Research Information Systems (CRIS). The Ministry of Education and Culture’s annual publication data collection is carried out through VIRTA. Further information is available at


3The Ministry of Education and Culture collects publication data from Finnish higher education institutions, state research institutions and university hospitals on a yearly basis to produce a knowledge base on the research activities and the social impact of the Finnish research system. For data collection, the publications are classified based on their format (publication type classification), scientific quality (Publication Forum) and contents (field of scientific classification).

4Vuori, Petri (2021): Kirjoittajamaksutietojen kerääminen ulkoisista lähteistä. Bachelor´s thesis of the Turku University of Applied Sciences, available at Although Anna-Kaarina Linna acted as one of the supervisors of the thesis and the library produced Web of Science, Scopus and Unpaywall data for the work, the analysis in this article has been carried out separately.