1 This paper incorporates part of the research carried out for the Master Degree in Library and Information Sciences (see: Domingues, 2010).

2 “Changed from handmade production (or analog) to production based on computer means (or digital) and, consequently, from paper maps to digital maps”, as well as, “production, before, almost exclusively centered in professionals (cartographers) and institutions concerning cartographic activities and nowadays more accessible to anyone with minimum technological means”.

3 “The geographer works at home, having at hand several documents of the same area, which he compares and adapts according to what in his opinion is the most perfect reproduction. His job is not to produce specific maps, because for that there is another “class of people”, who do not need any special training apart from knowing rectilinear geometry. If geographers would need to see and measure the area shown by their maps, none would have been able to publish in his lifetime one of the four parts of the earth.”

4 “So, like many other geographers, cartographers and European publishers, Lopez prepares his maps by combination, confrontation and synthesis of the chorographical and geographical descriptions and maps of different scales and types, the so-called office Cartography. The ‘other class of people’ are the engineers, particularly the military, who represent the ‘modern’ ones, and who defend maps based on the establishment of triangulation and surveying”.